Between Upgrading and Resettlement: Fieldwork reflections from locations in Colombo By Tim Wickson, on 17 September This post was prepared by Balint Horvarth, Mateo Lu, Fernando Toro, Nada Sallam and Karlene Stubbs with editorial support from Tim Wickson and Barbara Lipietz Ruth McLeod Rapid urban development in Colombo Introduction It is not every day that 35 post-graduate students from 21 countries have the opportunity to travel to a new country, partner with local organisations and policy makers and learn from the urban policies and practices at play there. After months of desk-based preparation, we left London for Colombo Sri Lanka with only one certainty in mind:
That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines.
This is likely the first example of remote access computing. Konrad Zuse finishes the Z3 Computer The Zuse Z3 Computer The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length.
The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late Zuse later supervised a reconstruction of the Z3 in the s, which is currently on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Hundreds of allied bombes were built in order to determine the daily rotor start positions of Enigma cipher machines, which in turn allowed the Allies to decrypt German messages.
The basic idea for bombes came from Polish code-breaker Marian Rejewski's "Bomba. The machine was designed and built by Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry between and The legal result was a landmark: Atanasoff was declared the originator of several basic computer ideas, but the computer as a concept was declared un-patentable and thus freely open to all.
The replica is currently on display at the Computer History Museum. Bell Labs Relay Interpolator is completed George Stibitz circa The US Army asked Bell Laboratories to design a machine to assist in testing its M-9 gun director, a type of analog computer that aims large guns to their targets.
Mathematician George Stibitz recommends using a relay-based calculator for the project. The Relay Interpolator used relays, and since it was programmable by paper tape, was used for other applications following the war.
The team first builds a large analog computer, but found it inaccurate and inflexible. After designers saw a demonstration of the ENIAC computer, they decided instead on a digital approach, while at the same time the project changed from a flight simulator to an air defense system.
A total of ten Colossi were delivered, each using as many as 2, vacuum tubes. A series of pulleys transported continuous rolls of punched paper tape containing possible solutions to a particular code. Colossus reduced the time to break Lorenz messages from weeks to hours.
Most historians believe that the use of Colossus machines significantly shortened the war by providing evidence of enemy intentions and beliefs. The Mark 1 produced mathematical tables but was soon superseded by electronic stored-program computers.
John von Neumann writes First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC John von Neumann In a widely circulated paper, mathematician John von Neumann outlines the architecture of a stored-program computer, including electronic storage of programming information and data -- which eliminates the need for more clumsy methods of programming such as plugboards, punched cards and paper.
Hungarian-born von Neumann demonstrated prodigious expertise in hydrodynamics, ballistics, meteorology, game theory, statistics, and the use of mechanical devices for computation. Because of its electronic, as opposed to electromechanical, technology, it is over 1, times faster than any previous computer.
ENIAC used panel-to-panel wiring and switches for programming, occupied more than 1, square feet, used about 18, vacuum tubes and weighed 30 tons. It was believed that ENIAC had done more calculation over the ten years it was in operation than all of humanity had until that time.
The first program, consisting of seventeen instructions and written by Kilburn, ran on June 21st, This was the first program to ever run on an electronic stored-program computer.
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These were later confirmed by using more modern computers for the actual flights. It was transferred to the Department of Physics at the University of Melbourne in and remained in service until Wilkes' ideas grew out of the Moore School lectures he had attended three years earlier.
This type of computer is useful in performing many of the mathematical equations scientists and engineers encounter in their work. It was originally created for a nuclear missile design project in by a team led by Fred Steele.
It used 53 vacuum tubes and hundreds of germanium diodes, with a magnetic drum for memory. Tracks on the drum did the mathematical integration. The Manchester Mark I used more than 1, vacuum tubes and occupied an area the size of a medium room. Thedesigned by ERA but built by Remington-Rand, was intended for high-speed computing and stored 1 million bits on its magnetic drum, one of the earliest magnetic storage devices and a technology which ERA had done much to perfect in its own laboratories.
The design packed vacuum tubes into a relatively compact 12 square feet. Plans to build the Simon 1 relay logic machine are published Simon featured on the November Scientific American cover The hobbyist magazine Radio Electronics publishes Edmund Berkeley's design for the Simon 1 relay computer from to Let us call it Simon, because of its predecessor, Simple Simon Simon is so simple and so small in fact that it could be built to fill up less space than a grocery-store box; about four cubic feet.
It was built in Washington DC as a test-bed for evaluating components and systems as well as for setting computer standards. It was also one of the first computers to use all-diode logic, a technology more reliable than vacuum tubes.Unit aim.
This unit is aimed at those who work in health or social care settings or. with children or young people in a wide range of settings. The unit. introduces the concepts of personal development and reflective practice. which are fundamental to such roles, and ways to implement these.
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Unit 1: Introduction to Communication in Health & Social Care Settings. Unit 2: Introduction to Personal Development in Health & Social Care Settings. Unit 3: Introduction to Equality and Inclusion in Health & Social Care Settings.
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Unit Number. L// Unit Level. 2. Unit Title. Introduction to personal development in health, social care or children's and young people’s settings. Sector. Credit Value.
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