Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills:
After conducting longitudinal research plus numerous studies on genetics, interventions, and brain function, we now have a great deal of independent, scientific, replicated, published research on dyslexia.
This section shares the research results released by the National Institutes of Health from to the present, as well as from dyslexia researchers in several others countries.
How many children are learning disabled? Clearly define each specific type of learning disability. What causes each learning disability? How can we identify each learning disability? How long does each disability last? Map its developmental course. What is the best way to teach these children?
Can we prevent any of these learning disabilities?
NIH investigated dyslexia first because it is the most prevalent learning disability. NIH Results Released in These research results have been independently replicated and are now considered to be irrefutable.
Dyslexia affects at least 1 out of every 5 children in the United States. Dyslexia represents the most common and prevalent of all known learning disabilities. Dyslexia is the most researched of all learning disabilities.
Dyslexia affects as many boys as girls. Some forms of dyslexia are highly heritable. Dyslexia is the leading cause of reading failure and school dropouts in our nation.
Reading failure is the most commonly shared characteristic of juvenile justice offenders. Dyslexia has been shown to be clearly related to neurophysiological differences in brain function. Early intervention is essential for this population. Dyslexia is primarily due to linguistic deficits. We now know dyslexia is due to a difficulty processing language.
It is not due to visual problems, and people with dyslexia do not see words or letters backwards. Reading failure caused by dyslexia is highly preventable through direct, explicit instruction in phonemic awareness.
Children do not outgrow reading failure or dyslexia. Children do not mature out of their reading difficulties. Slow, labored, and inaccurate reading of real and nonsense words in isolation are key warning signs. Even among children and adults who score within normal ranges on reading achievement tests, many report that reading is so laborious and unproductive that they rarely read either for learning or for pleasure.
Such instruction is shown to accelerate reading acquisition in general, even as it reduces the incidence of reading failure. Disabled readers must be provided highly structured programs that explicitly teach application of phonologic rules to print.
Longitudinal data studies that follow children over time indicate that explicit systematic phonics instruction results in more favorable outcomes for disabled readers than does a context-emphasis whole-language approach.
The researchers had no idea which children would develop reading difficulties and which ones would not. There were many theories at that time as to what caused reading difficulties, and which tests best predicted reading failure. The researchers tested these children 3 times a year for 14 years using a variety of tests that would either support or disprove the competing theories.
But the researchers did NOT provide any type of training or intervention.Simple Definition. Dyslexia is an inherited condition that makes it extremely difficult to read, write, and spell in your native language—despite at least average intelligence.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. Link to College of Arts and Letters Programs Anthropology. Undergraduate Courses/link to graduate courses Cultural Difference in a Globalized Society (ANT . About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
More. ADVANCED WRITING. IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A Corpus-Based Study of Processes and Products Horvath Jozsef Lingua Franca Csoport ADVANCED WRITING IN ENGLISH. Introduction. Learning is a lifelong process, regardless of our age, we all learn from different life circumstances.
However, according to psychotherapist Carl Roger (), "The only learning which significantly influences behaviour is self-discovered, self-appropriated learning" (p).