Index survives until the s. Portuguese Crown gives official approval to begin shipping African slaves to Brazil. It is the first permanent European settlement in North America.
The following essay is reprinted with permission from The Conversationan online publication covering the latest research. By Shinnosuke NakayamaUniversity of Cambridge In our society, not many people are lucky enough to have an ideal boss who they would want to follow faithfully for the rest of their lives.
We humans push the concept of leaders and followers to the extreme but they exist throughout the animal kingdom. These leaders and followers of the natural world could help us decide whether that unpopular boss can learn to be part of the team.
Leaders and followers are found in many group-living animals, such as fish, birds and primates. Group living can offer many benefits to group members, such as increasing the chances of finding food or avoiding predators.
Unlike some human workplaces, groups of animals know that they need to agree on where to go and when to go there in order to take full advantage of group living.
Leaders share common characteristics, so are to some extent predictable. In humans, leaders generally show higher scores in certain personality traits, notably extraversion. Similarly, in animals, bolder and more active individuals tend to be found as leaders.
Evolutionary theories suggest that boldness and leadership can coevolve through positive feedback. Individuals who force their preferences on others are more likely to be followed, which in turn encourages these individuals to initiate more often. Following fish This feedback results in distinct social roles for leaders and followers within a group, as shown by several experimental studies.
It would therefore seem that leaders and followers are born through natural selection, and that you have no chance of becoming a leader if you are born a follower.
But our work with stickleback fish suggests that while followers may not have what it takes to lead, leaders can learn to follow. In our paperwe tested the nature of leaders and followers using pairs of fish.
Sticklebacks are well known for showing individual differences in boldness, such as when foraging. When they emerge from safe cover to a risky foraging area, the bolder fish are more likely to initiate collective movement, while the shyer animals tend to follow.
Role reversal We forced the pairs of fish to take opposite roles to see if they could switch with a little training.
The shy fish was rewarded with a small amount of food every time it initiated collective movement, regardless of whether it was followed by the bolder partner or not. The bolder fish was also rewarded every time it followed the shyer member, but not when it emerged from safe cover by itself. In this way, we trained pairs to swap their natural roles and compared their behavior to the pairs that assume their natural roles.
Our prediction was that bold individuals would perform poorly when forced to become followers, because they are less responsive to the behavior of others in their natural role, while shy individuals would adopt the role of leader more easily.
However, the results were completely opposite: The bold fish readily adapted to following but the shy fish could not be trained to lead, even when it learnt to stop following the other fish.
We learnt that fish can learn to follow but struggle to learn to lead regardless of their personality.Defining what best describes leaders, followed by the debate based on the assumption that some authors agree that leaders are born, some that leaders are mixture of inborn and taught qualities and others try to prove that leaders are made.
Leaders Are Born, Not Made, Fish Study Finds. An experiment to train bold stickleback fish to be followers and shy fish to be leaders produces unexpected results. Misperceptions and corrections The recent release of Paul Verhoeven's Starship Troopers has led to a lot of online debate concerning the original book.
Some of the participants have made cogent points based on a thorough understanding of both the book in specific and the military in general. Are Leaders Born or Made essaysIt seems as though everyone has something to say about leadership - even if what they are saying is based on misunderstanding and misconception.
Sometimes we accept ideas as facts and let them rule our behaviors without taking the time to really think about them.
The. A Time-line for the History of Mathematics (Many of the early dates are approximates) This work is under constant revision, so come back later. Please report any errors to me at [email protected] Leaders are made not born.
A leader is a person that who effectively utilizes his skills and intuition to effectively manage all the resources and people towards the achievement of a given goal.