This special weekend will include exclusive front and back stage tours of these incredible historic collections, along with the opportunity to make your own wax moulage and draw 18th century wax models removed from their cases. It will also include illustrated lectures by Eduard Winter of the Narrenturm, conservator Martina Peters of the Josephinum, medical illustrator Marie Dauhiemerwax artist Eleanor Crookand Morbid Anatomy's Joanna Ebensteinall touching on the intersections of art and medicine, death and culture. Waxworks at the Josephinum: Attendees will learn about human anatomy with the help of the historic waxworks.
At the end of the fourth millennium BC, Crete was a rural agricultural society, whose people existed on self-sufficient, subsistence farming. Yet by the early second millennium BC an incredible transformation had taken place. Crete stood as a marvelously complex society with vast palaces, centralized authority, highly skilled craft specialization, heavy traffic in import and export of trade goods, and a complex writing system employed by a central administrative bureaucracy.
The issue which divides the two sides in this debate is: Since olives and grapes could be grown on hillsides and did not require the flat land already being used by wheat farmers, the additional productive land might have allowed the population to increase.
To do this, the chiefs might have built large redistribution buildings to hold the agricultural produce until it could be distributed. After that, the chiefs could have encouraged people to specialize in various crafts to produce valuable goods for export, which would have increased the interdependence of craftsmen and farmers.
Unfortunately, no evidence was found to show olive and grape production existed to any significant extent in Crete at this early date. In addition, the traditional response of small farmers to the introduction of additional crops was to diversify their crops, rather than to specialize and become vulnerable to conditions which might cause one crop to fail.
Also, the possibility that chiefs would arbitrarily decide to redistribute crops for benevolent reasons seemed to run counter to historical human behavior. In Clive Gamble offered a modification to cure one of these visible weaknesses.
He suggested the governing leaders may have been forceful and demanding rather than operating for benevolent reasons. In Paul Halstead suggested a different modification, offering that perhaps erratic weather patterns led to occasional crop failures. This might have caused farmers to voluntarily put surpluses into warehouses in good times, and draw them out when times were difficult.
And it did not become a trade good, since farmers would have drawn out what they put in. This was not a fruitful explanation. However, also inTjeerd van Andel and Curtis Runnels proposed a more promising possibility.
They expanded upon one of the alternatives mentioned in passing by Renfrew: However the chronology which was offered, and the delicate dependence of one event upon another, made it difficult to imagine this could have happened.
A more critical problem was that the model could not explain why palaces did not spring up all around the Aegean, but only occurred on Crete. Eastern Influence Aside from the difficulties noted above, perhaps the most debilitating problem in the indigenous view was that it finally had to admit trade in one form or another was essential to this growth on Crete.
Trade brings some degree of influence, whether it be small or large. But rather than speak in generalities, let us consider what happened on Crete. Was there trade between the people of Crete and off-island peoples during the long development period leading up to the first Minoan palaces?
Egyptian stone bowls were found at Knossos which date from around the beginning of the third millennium. Incised Ware pottery from the islands of the central Aegean were also found from this time period.
Bronze daggers were found in tombs from this period, even though Crete was not known to have developed any local sources of copper at that time. Local people were believed to have imported this essential metal from the Aegean island of Kythnos. Ivory from the Levant was being used to make Cretan seals at this time.
Pottery from the Dodecanese islands and the coast of Western Anatolia also dated from this time.
Fragments of pottery from Crete were found in contexts of this period in the Levant, Cyprus and Egypt. Without question, there was outside trade throughout this long development period up to and including the building of the first Minoan palaces. And this trade was not limited to islands close to Crete, but extended far to the east.
The simple fact that trade begets development would be amply demonstrated again in the Aegean a thousand years later, when it contributed strongly to the growth of Greek city-states and the flowering of classical Greek society. Do we see specific examples of trade bringing outside influences into Minoan society?
Even Renfrew tacitly acknowledged that, in the third millennium BC, flax—and the making of linen from flax—appears to have been brought to the Aegean from the Near East [xxi]. At that same time, a new style of pottery known as Agios Onouphrios began to be produced in many parts of Crete.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and alphabetnyc.com the religious ceremonies and customs of the parsees.
by jivanji jamshedji modi, b.a., ph.d., c.i.e., fellow of the university of bombay (), dipl. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Souls of Black Folk, by W.
E. B. Du Bois This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death.