In "Self-Reliance," philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson argues that polite society has an adverse effect on one's personal growth. Self-sufficiency, he writes, gives one the freedom to discover one'strue self and attain true independence. Emerson urges his readers to follow their individual will instead of conforming to social expectations.
Constitution, then examined how lower courts have applied the holdings of these Supreme Court cases to situations involving university professors at state colleges. This essay reviews cases under state law involving wrongful termination of employment in the USA, because an employee chose to follow ethical principles of the employee's profession.
Unlike employment law based on the Bill of Rights in the U.
Constitution, which only applies to government employees, the principles in this essay are applicable to all employees, even employees of for-profit and non-profit organizations.
This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not legal advice for your specific problem. There is no need to cite those cases, because: Because of my intentional lack of citations in this essay to the mainstream law of at-will employment, a reader might obtain the mistaken impression that the law in this essay is mainstream law.
So, I explicitly caution employees that: Protection against wrongful termination of employment is a developing area of law in the USA, which only rarely protects an employee.
I list the cases in chronological order in the citations in this essay, so the reader can easily follow the historical development of a national phenomenon. If I were writing a legal brief, I would use the conventional citation order given in the Bluebook.
At the end of this essay, I urge readers to contact their state legislators and push for stronger state statutes in this area.
Recognizing that this rule of law is too harsh, courts in the s began to develop an exception to the absolute right of an employer to terminate an at-will employee, in cases where the employer violated a clearly expressed public policy. The process of developing the public-policy exception to at-will employment accelerated during the s and s, not only with judicial recognition of public policy, but also legislatures passing statutes providing whistleblowers with protection from retaliatory discharge.
Such a violation could be either: I emphasize that the above public-policy exceptions are not the law in every state of the USA, but do describe the law in many states of the USA. The law varies from state to state, so no terse, general description of employment law can be absolutely correct for every state in the USA.
These limited public-policy exceptions in the majority of states do not create rights of freedom of speech for learned professionals, nor do they create rights of learned professionals to uphold high ethical standards.
The above public-policy exceptions are mentioned only as a foundation of the law that is discussed in the remainder of this essay. In some states this cause of action is a tort, in other states it is a breach of contract action.
Citations to cases are found in my companion essay on the history of at-will employment in the USA. In many states, the public-policy exceptions have been created by the legislature in statute s that specifically gives the ex-employee the right to sue for wrongful discharge.
In order to shorten this long essay, I have moved this detailed discussion to my companion essay on the history of at-will employment in the USA. Just as bad, unjust or unethical decisions by management are legally protected.
As a result of judicial reluctance in this area, even in states which do permit the tort of wrongful discharge of at-will employees for public policy reasons, the tort offers little or no protection to most employees.
Sometimes these personal ethical obligations collide with the desires of the employee's manager or employer.A Critique of William K. Clifford's "The Ethics of Belief" Tony Frontuto College of DuPage an essay entitled, ―The Ethics of Belief,‖ in which he famously argued that ―it is wrong always, or some other means internal to oneself.
Clifford instead argues in favor of objectivism, a philosophical concept which holds that truth can be. In this way, as we mature we become “responsible for a very large portion of the circumstances which are now external” to us (The Ethics Of Belief and Other Essays, p).
(On this view, far from enhancing our moral being, beyond a certain point the repetition of . Lectures and Essays, ed. Leslie Stephen and Frederick Pollock (London: Macmillan and Co., THE ETHICS OF BELIEF 3 cases the belief held by one man was of great importance to other men.
But forasmuch as no belief held by one man, however seemingly trivial the belief, and however obscure the. In "Self-Reliance," philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson argues that polite society has an adverse effect on one's personal growth.
Self-sufficiency, he writes, gives one the freedom to discover one'strue self and attain true independence. Against the individualism and abstractionism of standard modern accounts of justification and epistemic merit, Wolterstorff incorporates the ethics of belief within the full scope of a person's socio-moral accountability, an accountability that ultimately flows from the teleology of the world as intended by its creator and from the inherent value of humans as bearers of the divine image.
Presently in print in The Ethics of Belief and Other Essays (Prometheus Books, ). I. THE DUTY OF INQUIRY A shipowner was about to send to sea an emigrant-ship.