Anna Maria van Schurman and Women's natural right to study By Marianne Alenius Anna Maria van Schurman was born in to Dutch parents living in Cologne, whence they had moved temporarily from Antwerp to escape the conflict between Catholics and reformers. Anna Maria came from a family of Calvinists and she was deeply imbued with Calvinist philosophy. A few years after her birth, the family moved back to the Netherlands, to Utrecht, where Anna Maria then lived for many years of her life.
|HISTORY 41S: Not-So-Separate Spheres: Gender in Early Modern Europe Course Homepage||Women are generally ignorant, so if we give them Scriptures they will end up misinterpreting them. Some women recognized the fallacy of this reasoning.|
|Mary Wollstonecraft | Publish your master's thesis, bachelor's thesis, essay or term paper||Yet this claim would no doubt have astonished both the poet himself and his contemporaries, the most critical of whom regarded his views on women and marriage as libertine, not retrograde.|
|Bathsua Reginald Makin (–ca. ) - Oxford Scholarship||Mary Collier published The Woman's Labour. She became a marine, and her true sex was not discovered until|
|Unbreakable chain - Go Success Yourself||Women Philosophers pages Remember!!|
|Passwort vergessen?||English 'feminist' writings of the late seventeenth century Jrequently united pro- woman arguments with party-politicalpolemics. But although such texts have been discussed in terms of rationalist and contractarian philosophy, or as forerufzners of modern feminist concerns, the contemporary issues which underscore them have been ignored.|
Contact Author Aphra Behn Source As the first English woman to earn a living from writing, Aphra Behn was sometimes promoted by twentieth-century feminists as one of the earliest proponents of their cause.
For a woman to write at all in the seventeenth century was unusual. Women were supposed, under patriarchal theory, to limit their interests to religious and domestic matters. Plagiarism was common among Restoration playwrights, who frequently re-worked pre-restoration plays for the re-opened theatres .
Fraud was implied by suggestions that a man was helping Behn to write the plays, on the supposition that a woman was incapable of such literary output or of such lurid imagination. Nevertheless, Behn was widely accepted by her fellow playwrights and her plays were popular in the theatres.
Behn certainly believed that her work was equal to that of male playwrights. Such references were often either sarcastic or satirical, for Behn staunchly defended herself against attacks based on her gender.
Her themes centred around arranged marriages, politics and sex. The misfortune of the two unhappy marriages in The Lucky Chance is resolved into the formation of two happily unmarried couples as Belmour and Gayman re-claim their lovers, Julia and Leticia.
Sir Feeble You are not mad, Brother. Sir Feeble What, whether you shall be a Cuckold or not?
Sir Cautious Or lose three hundred pounds - consider that. This scene creates a mock replication of the common practice of contracting women to men as part of a financial or business arrangement.
By highlighting the gamble such bargains posed for the women concerned, Behn subtly confronts her male audience with their own foolish arrogance. As a poet, too, Behn condemned the conventions which prevented her sex from competing on an even playing-field with men: Permitting not the female sex to tread, The mighty paths of learned heroes dead.
We are forbid all grateful themes, No ravishing thoughts approach our ear, The fulsome gingle of the times, Is all we are allowed to understand or hear. Behn also used her poetry to criticise male inadequacies in a distinctly feminist way.
The concept of two-bodies-in-one was, however, not unusual in Early Modern England. She is clearly showing signs of a feminist perspective here, challenging not only patriarchal theory but also the traditional teachings of the church.
Her most famous novel Oroonoko  explores the contradictions of race and class as an African prince becomes a slave to white merchants. His mental and physical destruction as a degraded chattel parallel for Behn the experience of women in marriage./ / An Essay to Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen (Augustan Reprints) / Bathsua Makin / / The Cornutor of Seventy-Five (Publication / Augustan Reprint Society, No.
) / William Douglass, Tobias George Smollett. selection of copy for the volume and will write a short essay (ca. ) words, including a bibliography.
Prospective contributors to Essay to Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen; Anna Maria van Schurman, The Learned Maid; The Parallel (Finch) Conway, Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy; Grace Norton.
[Bathsua Makin (fl. )], An Essay to Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen (non-fiction) Francis Quarles (), Sir William Temple, Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning.
John Dunton, Athenian Gazette, continued as Athenian Mercury (periodical) We still have letters written in Greek between Schurman and the erudite English feminist Bathsua Makin who, inspired by Schurman, in published An Essay to Revive the Ancient Education of Gentlewomen. Anderson, R D, Education and opportunity in Victorian Scotland, Oxford University Press, ; Makin, Bathsua, An essay to revive the antient education of gentlewomen, London, Exploring ancient Greek and Roman numeracy.
Serafina Cuomo. May 29, · Aspasia the Physician Aspasia (ca 4th century AD) was an ancient Greek, Athenian physician that concentrated on obstetrics and gynecology. She was an exception to the ancient Greek social class system that impeded women’s access to education. Her work influenced physicians and surgeons of the Byzantine medicine period, including Aetius of Amida, and Paul of Aegina..