Developments in design of such materials seem to have followed shifts in the dominant paradigms within psychology. Early computer-based materials are seen to be influenced by behaviorist concepts while discovery learning materials are felt to be founded on later cognitive models of information processing and constructivism. The increase in cognitive approaches in the 's may be due as much to technology developments in object-oriented programming, hypermedia and interactive video as to the rise within psychology of cognitive theorists Atkins,
In today's businesses, employers tend to rely on a mix of subjective and objective measures as part of a larger performance measurement process. Each measurement method has its strengths and weaknesses. Objective Metrics An objective measurement typically defies interpretation: Either an employee was late five times or she wasn't, or he met his widgets-per-hour target or he didn't.
For that reason, some employers use purely objective measures for employees who have repetitive or entry-level jobs--performance is a function of doing or not doing some specific action, or in meeting per-product or per-service productivity totals. Subjective Metrics Some jobs cannot be easily measured.
Data analysts, attorneys and dolphin trainers each perform a job that is difficult to distill into a few discrete metrics. Therefore, employers will determine categories of measurement--for example, customer service or teamwork or professionalism.
Supervisors typically offer a numeric score that represents the employee's perceived performance in that category, but the question of whether a specific rating is "correct" is primarily a matter of interpretation.
Strengths and Weaknesses Objective measures work best in situations where each employee can be assessed directly and each employee's performance can be meaningfully compared to another employee.
For example, it is inappropriate to give part-time and full-time employees the same total-parts-per-month score. However, objective measures fail when supervisors distill complex processes into a single score that may not have much meaning in the real world.
For example, attorneys should not be measured on the quantity of legal briefs they file each month.
Subjective measures are very good at allowing a supervisor to exercise judgment about an employee's performance in complicated systems. Hybrid Systems Some employers employ a hybrid evaluation system.
Some measures are objective, and some are subjective. A supervisor might give a score for her perception of an employee's overall professionalism but provide objective scores for the number of unplanned absences or customer complaints.
Or, a boss might assess 50 percent of an employee's performance based on objective measures and 50 percent on "commitments" or "standards" or some other subjective measure of quality.
Small Business Implications Because there is no right way to measure employee performance, small-business owners should develop an assessment system that matches their industry standard and typical employee work.
For example, a cell-phone sales company might measure the total dollars of product sold by sales rep and score them based on whether they met certain goals--or a small marketing agency might solicit feedback from an account manager's clients to determine an appropriate performance score.The less definitive the requirement, the more development work is required, or the greater the performance risk, the more technical or past performance .
On the average over the last 50 years, the prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. has been increasing by about 5% per year. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes increases with age; among people aged 60 and over, million (% of all people in this age group) have type 2 diabetes.
Event Schedule. To search by title, date or author please use the search bar below. Click on the listing to view more information. The principal–agent problem, in political science and economics, (also known as agency dilemma or the agency problem) occurs when one person or entity (the "agent") is able to make decisions and/or take actions on behalf of, or that impact, another person or entity: the "principal".
This dilemma exists in circumstances where agents are motivated to act in their own best interests, which are. Subjective performance evaluations are subject to several rater errors, which makes objective measures seem a better alternative.
Discuss when subjective performance evaluations might be better for more feasible than objective ratings. 3. Consider a summer job that you have held%(1). Jun 30, · Some employers employ a hybrid evaluation system. Some measures are objective, and some are subjective.
A supervisor might give a score for her perception of an employee's overall professionalism but provide objective scores for the number of unplanned absences or customer complaints.